Books coleridge Contemporary creative responses Kubla Khan Porlock Samuel Taylor Coleridge Wordsworth and Romanticism

‘A deep Romantic chasm’: exploring the valley where Coleridge wrote Kubla Khan

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by Peter Fiennes
It pursuits me, the concept that the spirit of an individual lingers in a spot lengthy after they’re gone. You’ll be able to really feel them of their houses, quickly after they’ve died (or after they’ve left – we don’t need to kill them off…), though you may say that what we’re sensing is simply the fading reminiscence of somebody sitting in a favorite chair, or leaning towards the desk they as soon as spent a lot time laying and clearing. The discarded photograph solely slowly bleaches to white. However anybody who has ever visited the fields and trenches of the Somme has felt the loss and desolation in the air. A lot trauma and demise, they are saying, has seeped into the panorama that the texture of the world has been modified. In Simon Schama’s extraordinary ebook Panorama and Reminiscence, he means that it’s ‘our shaping perception that makes the difference between raw matter and landscape’. In different phrases, it’s us that make the distinction, and it’s our culture-bound minds that form what we see and really feel in the world – though, as Schama roams via the Polish forests where his ancestors as soon as labored as loggers, he does depart behind somewhat sliver of doubt.
I’ve much less rigour – or extra credulity – which is why I’m standing at the head of an obscure wooded valley in north Devon, not removed from the village of Porlock, making an attempt to select up the ghostly presence of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. It was right here – or it was in all probability right here – in a farmhouse simply above this wooden, that Coleridge fell right into a drugged sleep after an extended day’s strolling, and woke to seek out that he had a poem absolutely shaped in his thoughts, simply ready to be poured onto the web page. The poem – the fragment of a poem – was ‘Kubla Khan’ and there would have been much more of it – it might, I’m positive, have answered each query we have now ever had about life, demise, artwork, love and nature – however simply as Coleridge was poised to disclose the secrets and techniques of the world ‘a person on business from Porlock’ got here knocking, and Coleridge lingered too lengthy at the door, and when he rushed again to his room to complete it, the poem had evaporated. Or so he tells us. And it’s definitely a extra unique excuse than ‘the dog ate it, Miss’. However think about being the house owners of this lonely farmhouse, simply above –

 that deep romantic chasm which slanted
Down the inexperienced hill athwart a cedarn cowl!
A savage place! as holy and enchanted
As e’er beneath a waning moon was haunted
By lady wailing for her demon-lover!

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Think about having this man flip up at your own home one night time, exhausted however raving about demon lovers and the waning moon, excessive on opiates, crashing late after which lurching from his mattress to reply your door, scaring the life out of your cousin from Porlock, scattering fragments of genius from his torn notebooks. Think about making an attempt to inform him, gently, that they’re not ‘cedars’ in the woods, however ‘woaks, Sir, woaks’. You’d be happy to see the again of him, though for a number of months, by means of the years 1797 and 1798, Coleridge haunted these lonely woods, hills and slippery coastal paths. He walked for miles, for days, unable to settle at residence (which was twenty-five miles from right here in Nether Stowey); restlessly in search of out his neighbour, Wordsworth, and shaking him with a thrashy torrent of concepts and poetry; plunging via ‘wood and dale’ and ‘forests ancient as the hills’. ‘Kubla Khan’ is an explosion; it’s about creativity, or intercourse, or what it means to have bipolar dysfunction – we don’t know, besides that it accommodates wild truths. And Coleridge, like Kipling, understood that each one true magic should are available threes:

Might I revive inside me
Her symphony and track,
To such a deep delight ‘twould win me,
That with music loud and lengthy,
I might construct that dome in air,
That sunny dome! these caves of ice!
And all who heard ought to see them there,
And all ought to cry, Beware! Beware!
His flashing eyes, his floating hair!
Weave a circle spherical him thrice,
And shut your eyes with holy dread
For he on honey-dew hath fed,
And drunk the milk of Paradise.

Nicely, we’ve heard it earlier than, however it nonetheless packs a punch – and much more so in case you are standing at the head of the valley, wanting down at the wooded coombe slightly below the remoted farmhouse, where Coleridge first conjured this magic. It’s Might Day, historically the first day of spring, when the solar returns to a frost-ravaged land, and if I have been a younger maiden I must be wading via the dew at the foot of the hawthorn tree that’s blossoming fretfully to my left, alone in a area of hungry younger sheep. At my again is a darkish line of pine timber (what else?), looming over the valley and being slapped round by a robust wind, however forward and down the steep hill to the coombe is a extra historic land, a quieter spot, with a mass of broadleaf timber hazed of their first outpourings of inexperienced and, past them, a gratifyingly sunless sea.
The primary day of spring is all the time a tough date to agree. Is it the vernal equinox, in most years falling on 21 March? Or is it, as the previous custom had it, on 1 Might? Our ancestors lived in colder occasions, when the River Thames would freeze and the winters have been bleak. To complicate issues, what’s now 1 Might was, till 1752, 19 April; and what’s now 11 Might was the previous Might Day. That is when the British calendar ‘lost’ eleven days, when the ‘Julian’ Calendar was changed by the new-fangled ‘Gregorian’ one, and there have been riots in the fields and the church buildings. Mrs J.H. Philpot in her 1897 guide The Sacred Tree or The Tree, Faith and Fantasy has this story about the altering calendar and its impact on an offshoot of the Glastonbury Thorn that had survived in Quainton, Buckinghamshire:

 “[It] suddenly sprang into fame again when the new style was introduced into the Calendar in 1752, and the people, resenting the loss of their eleven days, appealed from the decision of their rulers to the higher wisdom of the miraculous tree. According to the Gentlemen’s Magazine for 1753, about two thousand people on the night of 24th December 1752 came with lanthorns and candles to view the thorn-tree, ‘which was remembered (this year only) to be a slip from the Glastonbury thorn.’ As the tree remained bare the people agreed that 25th December, N.S., could not be the true Christmas-day, and refused to celebrate it as such. Their excitement was intensified when on 5th January the tree was found to be in full bloom, and to pacify them the authorities were driven to decree that the old Christmas-day should be celebrated as well as the new.”


Nowadays, the ranges of consumption required to feed two Christmases yearly would in all probability spell the finish of the planet, however I point out Mrs Philpot’s thrilling story as a result of it doesn’t really feel fairly like spring but, right here on the hill above Coleridge’s coombe, with solely that lonely hawthorn and a straggle of gorse in bloom (and when is the gorse ever not?).
The sides of woods are usually not easy locations and it’s typically not straightforward to cross from the open land into the shut, skyless firm of timber. I’m strolling down a flinty path, flanked by ragged hedgerows and curious lambs, with the solar now tentatively shining on the valley. Perhaps it’s this sudden delicate tub of sunshine, however there’s an invisible barrier between the sunny fields and the darkish wooden, and it does take one thing – not braveness, precisely, however a acutely aware effort – to step from the mild into the shade. As soon as by way of the gate, although, I’m house in the timber’ acquainted embrace. Or, as John Clare would say:

 And this previous gate that claps towards the tree
The doorway of spring’s paradise ought to be.

‘Wood Pictures in Spring’

It’s proper, I feel, to pause and lean on a gate at the fringe of a wooden, earlier than passing via. In any case, there’s a man arising the woodland path, twisting by means of the timber, and simply as he reaches me a cuckoo calls from larger up the valley, the first I’ve heard for years. ‘That was nice, wasn’t it?’ says the man, his face hidden underneath a broad-brimmed hat, ‘a cuckoo on 1st May’.
Might Day must be a day of magic. The cuckoo is an indication of a cheerful marriage, or of imminent adultery, though it’s arduous to see how it may be each. All the time carry elder twigs (they may provide help to quell the urge to commit adultery)… or sew them into your lover’s pockets. The cuckoo’s calls comply with me down into the coombe, previous mild drifts of bluebells, fats younger clumps of nettle and crowds of low-growing holly bushes, now fading again into the woods with the greening of spring. There are violets by the aspect of the path, their tender lilac faces marked by ‘honey guides’, the pale white tracks which have advanced to steer bugs into their pollen-rich hearts. They’re fairly like a runway’s touchdown lights, set as much as deliver the plane safely house; and I’m considering that this coombe, with its infallible path, could possibly be my very own private honey information, drawing me in, on the lookout for one thing out of the abnormal. Honey-dew, maybe. That might… nicely, that might make all of it worthwhile.
I move a really grand holly tree, rising wild and jagged round its battered previous trunk. I can hear the river now because it hastens in the direction of the sea, after which I can see it, a tight-runnelled, stressed stream, hustling previous bracken and moss-drenched rocks, throwing up sprays of icy mild. Coleridge should have walked this manner, not so very way back, and watched the river leap and tumble. And he may have recognized this oak tree, its nice trunk and branches hung about with spring ferns, its younger, lime-green leaves tinged with a fading pink. There’s a tiny, sunken church right here, in a tenuous clearing in the woods, and I sit and watch the river race by.
The ocean could be very shut, though it’s quiet and hidden from view. There are not any automobiles, no individuals, simply birdsong – and daylight and lichen mottling the historic church partitions. There are sycamores throughout, however I’m considering of lime timber, and their sluggish retreat from the woods, and of Coleridge writing in his jail bower, and of the time I got here strolling over the South Downs, scrambling down wild rabbit paths, by way of overgrown woods of ash and chestnut, after which, dropping down the banks of a dizzying gulley, I slipped and sprawled into the final remnants of a lime tree copse, about ten immense timber hidden in fountains of inexperienced from the grip of the trendy world. They can’t have been coppiced or minimize for hundreds of years. These woods should have been right here when the Saxons carved their farms from the Sussex Weald, and even earlier, when the Romans drove the British tribes from their hilltops and forests and marched them into slavery. I kneel and crane to lookup at the limes’ scoured trunks, their fragile summer time leaves, the beech timber throughout, crowding in, after which, beneath a half-fallen elder tree, pushing via final yr’s leaves, I discover a very younger lime sapling. It’s heartbreaking, the sight of this slender thread with its 5 inexperienced leaves and blood-red buds, hiding in the final refuge of a long-vanished forest. I don’t know why, however observing this sapling, with the holy heat of those misplaced limes at my again, fills me with grief and pleasure.
Actually, I feel there’s just one factor I do know, as I sit in the shadow of Coleridge, ready for magic to emerge from the woods on this primary day in Might. In case you go searching, it gained’t be there.
© Copyright Peter Fiennes 2018. All rights reserved.
That is an edited extract from ‘Oak and Ash and Thorn: the ancient woods and new forests of Britain’ by Peter Fiennes (Oneworld Publications). The e-book explores our lengthy relationship with the woods – their historical past, folklore and conservation – and the unhappy and violent story of how so many have been misplaced. 
Peter Fiennes
Peter Fiennes was the writer of Time Out Guides – and can also be the writer of To Struggle with God, an account of his grandfather’s time as a chaplain at the entrance in World Warfare I.